While some Northeastern US anglers might debate the point, bonefish are probably the most sought-after of all saltwater fish. There are a bunch or reasons for this, key among them. Bonefish eat flies and therefore are generally fished for, in clear, shallow, warm water.
They can weight up to 19 pounds (8.6 kg), which happens to be the current IGFA all tackle record. The giants are probably most common in Hawaii & the most remote Bahamas destinations but some huge bones have been caught in Miami and Cuba as well. Most bonefish caught in the fly fishing world are in the 2-14 lb range (1-6 kg) range but a 6-9 lb (3-5 kg) fish is considered a very nice catch.Bonefish are silver in color with green/black vertical stripes almost clear fins. The bases of the pectoral fins are yellowish while the tip of the nose has a black spot or in certain Bahama destinations a blue nose. They primarily form schools until they are large solitary hunters. Some of the larger individuals travel solo, in pairs or in schools more rarely. The bonefish, has many names the "flats phantom" or "gray ghost", and is pound for pound one of the strongest and fastest salt-water fish. Bonefishing is a shallow-water pursuit done in depths ranging from 8 inches to several feet of water. Flyfishbonehead has seen big bonefish beach themselves chasing food. They move too fast for their own good sometimes. Bonefish may follow stingrays, much like the Giant Trevally will follow seals & sharks to ambush small prey flushed out & disturbed by the rays.
Bonefish are best pursued with light tackle & their prey is generally small shrimp, crabs, worms, small baitfish, which means that heavy-caliber tackle is not only unnecessary but actually counterproductive.
Fishing for bonefish can be the model of simplicity; a box of flies and a spool of tippet, some clippers if you need to change flies, a pair of good polarized sunglasses and a hat are all that's necessary in many bonefishing locales.
This is maybe the least-obvious of the above-mentioned points, but if you've spent any time fishing for permit, which will often flare away in horror at a seemingly perfect-looking crab imitation, or for tarpon, which may turn down a black Toad fly for a purple one (or may just refuse to eat at all), it's a welcome relief. In most locales, if you get a reasonable shrimp or crab imitation in front of the fish (and that latter part presentation is the absolute key), the bone will eat it.
And here's the part that initially entices most anglers; once a bonefish eats and is solidly hooked, it just absolutely tears away from you. In its shallow-water environment, the fish has nothing to do but to move away from any threat fast. No jumping, no possibility of sounding, just long scorching runs.
For anglers on the American continent, go to South Florida and the Florida Keys; the Bahamas; islands off Cuba if you're lucky enough to get permission to fish them; Los Roques (off Venezuela's east coast); Christmas Island (about 1200 miles from Hawaii by airplane); and of course the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and the Belizean waters to the south. Harder to reach for anglers in the Americas are the Seychelles, off the east coast of Africa, north of Madagascar but the Seychelles' reputation for big fish, and lots of them, is stellar. There is also Reunion & Mauritias to the east of Madegascar which is less known and just are hard to get to.
Listen to your guide. It's often been said that the very best bonefish guides are in South Florida and the Florida Keys, and to some extent that's – there are outstanding guides in those areas. That's the place where bonefishing as we know it was born. But there are fantastic guides in all the great bonefish locales, and we'll do our best to match you up with them. Keep in mind, too, that a guide who knows a set of flats as well as he does his own living room won't necessarily be the best guide for you; how you interact with and mesh with a guide will have a lot to do with how successful you are.
Your line has to be a tropical one; bonefish-specific tapers are best. Don't bring your general freshwater line unless you want to spend most of your trip cursing it. Those lines are too limp to work in the bonefish's tropical/sub-tropical world. Leaders should be about 10 feet, tapering from a heavy butt of about .025 inches to 10-15 pound test, again depending on where you're going.
Some caveats for the first-time angler: you have to be able to cast relatively quickly (no 8-false-cast trout-style stuff here), accurately, and often at a distance of 60-plus feet. And keep in mind that bonefish flats seem always to be windy. You have to do your quick, accurate and long casting in the wind if you're going to be consistently successful. So get a good casting book or video; or better yet, hire an instructor; and practice before you go.
Final tip for the angler who's willing to do his homework....Read!.
Recap of what's needed to go bonefishing
(See the world map for location & species specific rod reel, line & leader information for bonefish and all of the other species)
Bonefish can be caught on a 6-8 weight. Most commonly used an 8 weight because many anglers have one. Some prefer a 6 weight because its more fun to use little tackle in general, some prefer a 9 because they can cast it better. You can use any rods from a 6 weight to a 9 weight effectively.
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Biscayne Bonefish Shrimp